Interesting article in ACM’s Ubiquity, Communication Corner, How not to be overwhelmed by obvious advice, by Philip Yaffe (DOI: 10.1145/3375552), which [loosely] ties nicely with Ray Dalio’s Principle 4.4J; “Watch out for assertive, fast talkers.”
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Fast talkers are people who articulately and assertively say things faster than they can be assessed as a way of pushing their agenda past other people’s examination or objections. Fast talking can be especially eﬀective when it’s used against people worried about appearing stupid. Don’t be one of those people. Recognize that it’s your responsibility to make sense of things and don’t move on until you do. If you’re feeling pressured, say something like “Sorry for being stupid, but I’m going to need to slow you down so I can make sense of what you’re saying.” Then ask your questions. All of them.
Be dubious of people or advice that is delivered with too much assertion, speed, or verbose language. This is often used with goals related more towards the ego than towards the true goal.
If you do not fully understand something being said, ask for clarity. If it’s still not being explained clearly, it is likely not fully understood by those saying it (as said by Einstein no, Feynamann no, Rutherford). Often, questioning someone in this scenario helps the speaker understand their own thoughts more clearly. By being forced to reword their thinking using different language, they have to remap the thoughts in their brain and reconstruct it for verbal delivery. This process can also spark new ideas and new thinking that would otherwise have been lost, along with the original idea that no-one got too!
This especially applies to managers. Allow others and opportunity to speak or challenge the leading argument(s) in a discussion or meeting. There may be introverts in the room with excellent ideas that are being suppressed by the “assertive, fast talkers”. Do not mistake quietness for a lack of confidence, or simple language for lack of intelligence. Often, quite the opposite is true!
With unprecedented access to information, the internet can be a source of useful material. However many times, so-called experts share specious advice. In this article, Phil Yaffe addresses a widely discussed topic, clear writing, and dives deeper to fix the flaws found in regurgitated writing advice.In the previous installment, we took a close-up look at the functional definition of “concise,” i.e. as long as necessary, as short as possible, and saw how useful it is in preparing an expository (non-fiction) text that most people will probably want to read. As you will recall, there are two other functional definitions needed to render an expository text effective: “clear,” and “dense.” We are going to take a second look at these now (see Communication Corner No. 2 “The Three Acid Tests of Persuasive Writing“).
Fixing the Flaws in the Ten “Principles” of Clear Writing
Ten Tips and Techniques
- Keep sentences short
This is usually interpreted to mean an average sentence length of 15â18 words. Not because readers can’t handle longer sentences; however, when length rises above this average, sentences are likely to be poorly constructed, thereby damaging clarity.
But remember, 15-18 words is an average. Don’t shun longer sentences. A well-constructed long sentence is often clearer than two or more shorter ones. Why? Because the longer sentence better shows the logical linkage among the various elements, which would be lost by splitting it apart.
- Prefer the simple to the complex
If the precise word is long, don’t hesitate to use it, because not using it would damage clarity. On the other hand, if a shorter word would do just as well, prefer it. Examples: “dog” rather than “canine,” “change” rather than “modification,” “entrance” rather than “ingress.”
- Prefer the familiar word
This is just a variation of point no. 2. If you have a choice between two words, use the one that most people are likely to recognize and use themselves. Examples: “insult” rather than “imprecate,” “daily” rather than “quotidian.”
- Avoid unnecessary words
In other words, be concise.
- Use active verbs
In an individual sentence, whether you use an active or a passive verb is of little consequence. However, over an entire text, it becomes very important. Active verbs tend to enhance clarity; conversely, too many passive verbs tend to damage it.
- Write the way you speak
This is a very useful technique, but don’t take it literally. When we speak, we generally use simpler vocabulary and sentence structures than when we write. Writing the way you speak is a good way to produce the first draft. However, when we speak, our sentence structures are often confused and our vocabulary imprecise. These faults must be rigorously corrected in the second, third or later drafts.
- Use terms your reader can picture
In other words, be dense. Use specifics; avoid weasel words. When making a general statement, be certain to support it with concrete data.
- Tie in with your reader’s experience
We are again talking about density, i.e. using precise information. Be certain that the terminology you chose is compatible with your reader’s experience. If you need to use a word not likely to be familiar to your readers, define it the first time it appears. If it is key, define it again later on in the text. Also, be wary of words that look familiar but have a very different meaning in the context of your subject.
Example: “Insult” is medical jargon for an injury or trauma. However, talking about an “insult” to the heart without first explaining this unconventional meaning of the word is likely to leave your readers scratching their heads.
- Make full use of variety
This suggestion is almost superfluous. If you conscientiously apply the three writing principles of clarity, conciseness, and density, you will almost automatically introduce a variety of sentence lengths and structure into your text.
Avoid introducing too much variety of vocabulary. Constantly the changing terminology for the sake of variety damages clarity. If several words mean essentially the same thing, pick one or two of them and shun the others. Introduce equivalent terms in such a way that the reader clearly understands that they mean the same thing. Here’s an example.
Manned space travel to Mars is once again being considered. The Red Planet has fascinated mankind for centuries. The “God of War” is the fourth planet from the Sunâour own Earth is the thirdâand it is our closest celestial neighbor except for the moon.
Manned space travel to Mars is once again being considered. Popularly known as the “Red Planet,” Mars has fascinated mankind for centuries. Being the fourth planet from the Sun (Earth is the third), it is our closest celestial neighbor except for the moon.
- Write to express, not to impress
The purpose of expository writing is to instruct or inform, not to show off your literary prowess. The fact is, the better you write, the fewer people are likely to notice. And this is how it should be. The reader’s full attention should be on what you are saying, not how you are saying it.
This list of “Ten Principles of Clear Writing” (also see: The Elements of Style) is widely circulating online and offers useful advice, but are built on top of 3 true principles — clear, concise and dense (see Communication Corner No. 2 “The Three Acid Tests of Persuasive Writing“).
For a text to be clear, the writer must identify and emphasize what is of primary importance (key ideas), de-emphasize what is of secondary importance (information supporting key ideas), and eliminate what is of no importance (irrelevant information).
For a text to be concise, the writer must cover all the key ideas and supporting information identified under “clarity,” and do so in a minimum of words.
For a text to be dense, the writer must use specific information to add substance, then clearly show the logical link between related information to avoid misinterpretation.
There you go, 10:3 so-called effective writing principles condensed to real principles of clarity, conciseness and density — and 1 bonus principle from Ray Dalio for good measure!